The researchers choose the research method, in order to plan the activities and conduct the study efficiently by gathering authentic data and valid information. There are two types of data analysis, one is the quantitative analysis and another is qualitative analysis. Through this article, it is possible to demonstrate the qualitative analysis method that is utilised widely by the researchers for developing in-depth critical evaluation.
Qualitative analysis is related to subjective judgment based on non-quantifiable data. The qualitative analysis mainly deals with the intangible and inexact information that can be difficult to collect and measure. Machines struggle to conduct qualitative analysis as intangibles can't be defined by numeric values. Hence, the qualitative data analysis method includes the information and content gathered from a diverse source of information, for further in-depth critical analysis. However, the three most commonly used qualitative research methods are in-depth interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs) and observation. The researchers mainly try to gather a vast range of information directly from secondary sources of information, such as books, journals and articles, by maintaining the validity and authenticity of the information and content. This is beneficial for the researchers to improve their own skills and knowledge on that particular research topic. The qualitative analysis is a subjective analysis that is concerned with non-statistical data that cannot be computed. The sample size is small as compared to the quantitative analysis and it is non-representative of the entire population. Interpreting and understanding the social interactions are possible through this analysis and the research method is explanatory. The qualitative methods can be separated into five groups such as phenomenological, narrative, ethnography, grounded theory, and case study.
The three most commonly used qualitative research methods are in-depth interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs) and observation. One-to-one interviews are the most commonly utilised qualitative research method by the researchers to conduct social studies. They are semi-structured, which means that the questions to be asked and issues to be addressed are fluid and take shape as the interview unfolds, where the participants can share the activities and provide authentic information. The advantages of interviews are such as, Yield rich data and new insights allow face-to-face interaction and in-depth conversation about the topic being studied, capturing both affective and cognitive aspects and giving the interviewer the opportunity to clarify or explain the question/topic for better responses. The second way is Focus group discussions where the group of people can share the information about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs and attitudes towards an idea, concept, service, product, etc. for further critical analysis. The usefulness of focus group analysis is identifying and defining problems, Pre-testing topics or ideas to sharpen the research questions, identifying program strengths, generating new ideas, weaknesses, and suggestions, interpreting quantitative findings and learning people’s thoughts on project outcomes and impacts. The researchers also can choose Observations to understand an ongoing process or situation as well as gather data on individual behaviours or interactions between people for better analysis. In this regard, the researchers can develop thematic analysis, by creating different themes related to the research tonic and evaluating the findings by applying the information, theories and concepts.
The qualitative data analysis research is hereby beneficial for the researchers to understand attitudes, provide insights that are specific to an industry, improve creativity in data analysis with in-depth critical evaluation, as well as incorporate human experience for creating driving sources to meet the research aim and objectives. The researchers can implement the theories and concepts to analyse the gathered findings where the participants and focused group technique are also suitable for collecting valid information to complete the research ethically.
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